Using the satellite image in cadastre
In Romania during the communism, the propriety was taking by the state. The land of the landowners was taking by the state. About 15 years, the new governments try to return the proprieties to old owners. It is a very difficult work because there are many interests. For to accomplish the task, in every locality was establish a commission for return the land to old owners. Technical, for every locality must be restoring the old map. But, the old map not exists for the south and west of the country (Valachia and Moldavia). Only in Transylvania exist the old maps of the Territorial Book. So, in this way, for the most part of the Romanian territory must be made the parcelling map. This map is the base for the title of propriety. According the Romanian law, every owner must sign the drawing of every parcel, corresponding dimensions and neighbour (name and title of propriety). The surface must be in tolerance, according with the act. The intent of our work is to use the satellite image for the new cadastre map. With this methodology we must respect the precision of ± 20 cm for every point measured or vectorised.
Romania is dividing in 42 departments. In every department exists an Office of Cadastre. The Office gives us the next documents:
- existing maps with the locality limits;
- existing maps for the intravilan and the names of the villages;
- existing maps of the new parcels (if exists!);
- title and maps of the economical enterprise (private or state owners);
- geodetic network;
- existing cadastral maps;
- name and other data about every owner.
2.2 Field recognize.
It was recognize all the geodetic points and the administrative limits of the locality. We recognize in the field the state big properties. We detain the topographical plan at 1:5000 and we try to restore the contour of the old proprieties according with the satellite image.
2.3 Realization of the digital model of the terrain for the relief correction of the satellite image.
We digitise the level curvature on the plans at 1:5000 for realize the 3D terrain model. The precision is enough for this purpose.
2.4 Performed measuring.
The geodetic network accomplishes the accuracy necessary for the work, respectively under ± 5 centimetres. It was determinate around 20 mark points for scaled the satellite image.
We consider the accuracy of the detail points must be batter in intravilan. For this reason every propriety from intravilan was determinate by direct measuring with total stations. The general accuracy was less than ± 10 centimetres for each point. At the constructions, we use the roulette for the inaccessible points.
In extravilan was determinate by direct measuring using total stations or GPS receivers only the points for describe the roads, the irrigation canal, railway axis, some parcels limits. For the extravilan we consider it is sufficient the satellite image, combine with some direct measurements and the parcel plans. The general accuracy for a point in extravilan was about ± 20 centimetres.
2.5 Study works.
2.5.1 Geodetic network adjustment.
It was realise by last square method, indirect measurements, with equations for distances, directions and GPS coordinate. The adjustment was realising in block for the three types of measurements. The precision obtained was in requirements of the National Office of Cadastre. The adjustment was realising using the weight for each measurement.
2.5.2 The computing of the details point.
The computing was realising with respect for national projection: Stereografic 1970. Some points were verified by double measurements. Another verifies was made by the image.
2.5.3 Made the objects (surfaces).
We use the terrain drawing made by an employer. Every object was construct in the computer using AUTOCAD program. The GIS used is MAPSYS (Romanian program) and is compatible with AUTOCAD MAP.
We positioning the proprieties received from the Cadastre Office or from the local administration, in coordinate. If are realise in local system of coordinate, we integrate the propriety in the new map. We close every propriety on his limits taken from the local administration.
We transfer people from our society and logistics to the local administration for collaborate in the identification between the parcel and the owners.
2.5.4 Settlement of the locality limits.
It was constitute a commission from local administration for represented the locality in according with the neighbours. Identical, every neighbour constitutes a commission too for visit and fixed the limits.
2.5.5 Stable the limits of every cadastral sector. Cadastral number.
According the existing normative, we define the limits for every cadastral sector. The roads, the railways, the canals are himself cadastral sectors. The intravilan is a cadastral sector too.
In every locality already exist cadastral numbers. These numbers are replacing by the new numbers.
According with the law of cat aster and immovable publicity, article 2, ăThe general cat aster is organise at the territorial administrative level: commune, town, department and for all the countryÓ. According article 11c, the general cadastre suppose: ăidentification of the immovable based on proprieties acts, or if it is missing, based on the possession exerted under owner name; the measuring of alls terrain parcels included in a territorial administration...Ó. According with article 12, paragraph 2: ăThe owners of immovable are oblige to permit the access of the specialists for execute the cadastral works.....Ó.
After finish the plans and the file, every owner come to the city hall and confirm the dates for to inscribe the title on the territorial book registration. According to the same law, ăThe litigations about the exacting dates could be presented by the owners, official, in term of 60 days from the communications, to the Cadastre OfficeÓ.
On the territorial book registration we will present an ensemble plan of the locality, with the cadastral sectors. Every cadastral sector will be realise on leafs, 1:500 scale. On every cadastral sector will be presented every parcel with his characteristics: cadastral number, post number. Every propriety has an file. Cadastral sectors belonging to the Romanian state will be registrant separately. In this way, every parcel will be unique, with a definite number.
Will be annexed the parcel register, owners register, etc.
We used the MAPSYS program, created by a Romanian informatician, 5.3 versions. This program contain facilities for realise an efficiency using of the fields. In this way, for the local administration will be accessible the next dates:
- parcel owner;
- parcel surface;
- act of propriety;
- land cultivation;
- dates about constructions;
- taxes obviousness;
- dates about populations;
- agricol census.
In this application it is possible to complete with another information necessary for land administration.